Biological records from the U.S Antarctic Service Expedition, 1939-41

Versão mais recente publicado por Southwestern Pacific Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) Node em Mar 19, 2019 Southwestern Pacific Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) Node

The United States Antarctic Service Expedition (1939–1941), often referred to as Byrd’s Third Antarctic Expedition, was an expedition jointly sponsored by the United States Navy, State Department, Department of the Interior and The Treasury. Although a U.S.-government sponsored expedition, additional support came from donations and gifts by private citizens, corporations and institutions.

Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd donated many of the supplies that he had gathered for his own expedition, the largest item being the Bear of Oakland, commissioned the USS Bear. A second ship, the USMS North Star, a 1434-ton wooden ice ship built for the Bureau of Indian Affairs was supplied by the Department of the Interior.

A total of 125 men departed from the United States in the two ships of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition. Most of the men who made up the expedition were solicited from the military ranks, civilian agencies of government and scientific institutions. A few volunteers were employed by the Department of the Interior for $10 per month, food and clothing included. A total of 59 men, divided initially into three groups, wintered in Antarctica.

The objectives of the expedition were outlined in an order from President Franklin D. Roosevelt dated November 25, 1939. The President wanted two bases to be established: East Base, in the vicinity of Charcot Island or Alexander I Land, or on Marguerite Bay if no accessible site could be found on either of the specified islands; and West Base, in the vicinity of King Edward VII Land, but if this proved impossible, a site on the Bay of Whales at or near Little America was to be investigated, and delineation of the continental coast line between the meridians 72 degrees W., and 148 degrees W. In view of the broad scope of the objectives and the unpredictable circumstances that always arise in Antarctica, it is remarkable that most of the objectives set for them were met.

Observations were conducted in every conceivable area: seismic, cosmic ray, auroral, biological, tidal, magnetic and physiological to name a few. All in all, it was an extremely successful expedition.

With international tensions on the rise, it was considered wise to evacuate the two bases rather than relieve the present personnel with new men who would continue to occupy the bases. It was hoped that one day this base would be reoccupied so much of the equipment and supplies were left behind as the two ships sailed from West Base on February 1, 1941. The evacuation of East Base was concluded on March 22 and both ships sailed immediately. The USMS North Star arrived in Boston on May 5 and the USS Bear on May 18.

Registros de Dados

Os dados deste recurso de ocorrência foram publicados como um Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), que é o formato padronizado para compartilhamento de dados de biodiversidade como um conjunto de uma ou mais tabelas de dados. A tabela de dados do núcleo contém 165 registros.

Este IPT armazena os dados e, portanto, serve como um repositório de dados. Os dados e os metadados do recurso estão disponíveis para download no seção de downloads. A tabela de versões lista outras versões do recurso que foram disponibilizadas ao público e permite o rastreamento das alterações realizadas no recurso ao longo do tempo.

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Versões

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Como citar

Pesquisadores deveriam citar esta obra da seguinte maneira:

SWPRON (2019): Biological records from the U.S Antarctic Service Expedition, 1939-41. v1.1. Southwestern Pacific Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) Node. Dataset/Occurrence. https://nzobisipt.niwa.co.nz/resource?r=usase&v=1.1

Direitos

Pesquisadores devem respeitar a seguinte declaração de direitos:

O editor e o detentor dos direitos deste trabalho é Southwestern Pacific Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) Node. To the extent possible under law, the publisher has waived all rights to these data and has dedicated them to the Public Domain (CC0 1.0). Users may copy, modify, distribute and use the work, including for commercial purposes, without restriction.

GBIF Registration

Este recurso não foi registrado pelo GBIF

Palavras-chave

Occurrence; Observation

Contatos

Quem criou esse recurso:

Kevin Mackay
Marine Database Manager
NIWA Private Bag 14-901 6241 Kilbirnie Wellington NZ

Quem pode responder a perguntas sobre o recurso:

Kevin Mackay
Marine Database Manager
NIWA Private Bag 14-901 6241 Kilbirnie Wellington NZ

Quem preencher os metadados:

Kevin Mackay
Marine Database Manager
NIWA Private Bag 14-901 6241 Kilbirnie Wellington NZ

Quem mais foi associado com o recurso:

Usuário
Kevin Mackay

Cobertura Geográfica

Bay of Whales, Ross Sea and Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica

Coordenadas delimitadoras Sul Oeste [-79, -168], Norte Leste [-60, -60]

Citações bibliográficas

  1. Reports on scientific results of the United States Antarctic service expedition 1939–41 (Proceedings of the American philosophical society, Vol. 89, No. 1, April 1945) https://doi.org/10.1080/00049184608702259

Metadados Adicionais

marine, harvested by iOBIS

Identificadores alternativos https://nzobisipt.niwa.co.nz/resource?r=usase