Species composition and distribution of net plankton diatoms in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Ocean 1963-4

Latest version published by Southwestern Pacific Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) Node on 20 March 2023 Southwestern Pacific Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) Node

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The water mass designated as the Southern or Antarctic Ocean is among the most productive areas of the world. In spite of the recent emphasis on biological oceanographic research, the species composition and distribution of the primary producers, mostly diatoms, has not been thoroughly examined in many areas. Knowledge of the organisms involved in primary production is of special interest as man considers use of marine resources to meet the needs of expanding world population. Phytoplankton diatoms in the Antarctic are the major food source for the tremendous krill (Euphausiacea) populations, which in turn are the food source for many of the large whale, seal, fish, and bird populations in this area. It is necessary to understand the species composition and ecology of the Antarctic primary producers and their relationship to the consumer levels in the food web before adequate use of the abundant marine resources of the Antarctic Ocean can proceed. This work is concerned with the most basic problem involved, the species composition of the phytoplankton diatoms and their distribution.

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Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Hargraves P E (2023): Species composition and distribution of net plankton diatoms in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Ocean 1963-4. v1.0. Southwestern Pacific Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) Node. Dataset/Occurrence. https://nzobisipt.niwa.co.nz/resource?r=diatom_antarctica_1964&v=1.0


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The publisher and rights holder of this work is Southwestern Pacific Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) Node. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.

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Occurrence; Observation


Paul Eric Hargraves
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
College of William and Mary - Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Geographic Coverage

Pacific sector of the Antarctic Ocean

Bounding Coordinates South West [-66.25, -176.633], North East [-41.15, -76.267]

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1963-10-13 / 1964-11-19

Sampling Methods

The phytoplahkton samples used in this study were obtained in 1963-64 by various personnel of the Lamont Geological Observatory of Columbia University, aboard the USNS Eltanin, on cruise 10-15. Samples were obtained by making vertical hauls with a 0 .3m diameter net, #20 mesh, from about 50m depth to the surface, and by use of an electric water pump and plastic line, with the water intake located on the ship’s hull about 4m below the surface. The strained samples were adjusted to a small standard volume and preserved with 5% buffered sea water formalin; upon shipment to the Lamont laboratories, they were stored in the dark until examined.

Study Extent Pacific sector if the Antarctic (Southern) Ocean

Method step description:

  1. For light microscopical observations, portions of the samples were washed free of preservative with glass-distilled water and mounted in Hyrax (refractive index=1.65), some with and some without preliminary oxidation of organic material in mineral acid. Duplicate slides were prepared of the samples, one set in the author's collection and one set to the Diatom Herbarium at the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. The liquid-preserved samples remain on file at Lamont Geological Observatory. Hyrax slides of material from selected stations have been deposited in the phytoplankton collection of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science. All species observed were listed for each station and photographed with a Wild M-20 microscope using Panatomic-X film.
  2. Further observations on the flora in some samples were made with the Philips EM-200 electron microscope. Both direct mounts of the material and carbon replicas were made, but since the silica frustule of diatoms is opaque to the electron beam, most observations were made with carbon replicas.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Hargraves, Paul Eric, "Species composition and distribution of net plankton diatoms in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Ocean" (1968). Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects. William & Mary. Paper 1539616686. https://dx.doi.org/doi:10.25773/v5-phv7-8y69 doi:10.25773/v5-phv7-8y69

Additional Metadata

marine, harvested by iOBIS